• Andena Noviyati Nabila UNJ
  • Ratna Asih Asih Universitas Negeri Jakarta
  • Salsabila Putri Ramadhanti UNJ
  • Fakhrunnisa Fakhrunnisa UNJ
  • Usep Suhud UNJ
Keywords: cultural, destination image, destination service quality, e-word of mouth, intention to visit South Korea, perceived benefit, visit intention


This study examines the factors that influence the intention to visit South Korea during the pandemic. This study uses six measured variables: perceived benefits, destination image, e-word of mouth, destination service quality, culture, and visit intention. This study used a quantitative model by collecting data using an online questionnaire and with the criteria for female or male respondents aged 25 years and over and visiting South Korea during the pandemic. The data collection was carried out in January 2021. The total respondents in this study were 212 people consisting of 45 men and 167 women. The results obtained from this study, namely destination service quality has a positive effect on e-word of mouth, e-word of mouth has a positive impact on destination image.


Abubakar, A. M. (2016). Does eWOM influence destination trust and travel intention: A medical tourism perspective. Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 29(1), 598–611.
Adams, G. D. (1995). Cultural tourism: The arrival of the intelligent traveler. Museum News, 74(6), 32–37.
Aldebi, H., & Aljboory, N. (2018). The impact of the tourism promotion-mix elements on the foreign tourists’ mental images of the Jordanian tourist destinations: A field study. International Business Research, 11(1), 74–86.
Alexandris, K., Dimitriadis, N., & Markata, D. (2002). Can perceptions of service quality predict behavioral intentions? An exploratory study in the hotel sector in Greece. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 12(4), 224–231. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520210434839
Allameh, S. M., Pool, J. K., Jaberi, A., Salehzadeh, R., & Asadi, H. (2015). Factors influencing sport tourists’ revisit intentions. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
Asrori, Y. W., & Supriadianto, S. (2019). Hallyu dan pengaruhnya pada perkembangan objek wisata tematik Korea Selatan. Jurnal Pariwisata Terapan, 3(1), 76. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpt.49278
Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868–897. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4
Beerli, A., & Martín, J. D. (2004). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: A quantitative analysis - a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(5), 623–636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.06.004
Bi, J., & Gu, C. (2019). Cultural distance and international tourists’ intention to visit a destination. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 24(8), 839–849.
Chaerunnisaa, D. (2013). Analisis hubungan electronic word of mouth, citra daerah tujuan wisata, sikap wisatawan terhadap daerah tujuan wisata dan keinginan berwisata: Studi kasus Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: Relationships analysis of electronic word-of-mouth, destination.
Chaiken, S., & Eagly, A. H. (1976). Communication modality as a determinant of message persuasiveness and message comprehensibility. Journal of personality and social psychology, 34(4), 605.
Chalip, L., Green, B. C., & Hill, B. (2003). Effects of sport event media on destination image and intention to visit. Journal of sport management, 17(3), 214–234.
Champion, V. (2009). Perceived benefits. Health behavior constructs: Theory, measurement and research. Bethesda, MD: National cancer institute.
Chandon, P., Wansink, B., & Laurent, G. (2000). A benefit congruency framework of sales promotion effectiveness. Journal of marketing, 64(4), 65–81.
Chaulagain, S., Wiitala, J., & Fu, X. (2019). The impact of country image and destination image on US tourists’ travel intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12, 1–11.
Chen, M.-F., & Tung, P.-J. (2014). Developing an extended theory of planned behavior model to predict consumers’ intention to visit green hotels. International journal of hospitality management, 36, 221–230.
Crompton, J. L., & McKay, S. L. (1997). Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of tourism research, 24(2), 425–439.
Cronin Jr, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: A reexamination and extension. Journal of marketing, 56(3), 55–68.
De Cieri, H. L. (2005). The International Journal of Human Resource Management (1 ed., Vol. 16). Routledge.
Forsythe, S., Liu, C., Shannon, D., & Gardner, L. C. (2006). Development of a scale to measure the perceived benefits and risks of online shopping. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 20(2), 55–75. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20061
Gnoth, J., & Zins, A. H. (2013). Developing a tourism cultural contact scale. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 738–744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.09.012
Gretzel, U., Zhong, L., Koo, C., Doosti, S., Jalilvand, M. R., Asadi, A., Pool, J. K., & Adl, P. M. (2016). Analyzing the influence of electronic word of mouth on visit intention: The mediating role of tourists’ attitude and city image. International Journal of Tourism Cities.
Grönroos, C. (1982). An applied service marketing theory. European journal of marketing.
Hahm, J. (Jeannie), Tasci, A. D., & Terry, D. B. (2018). Investigating the interplay among the Olympic Games image, destination image, and country image for four previous hosts. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 35(6), 755–771. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2017.1421116
Han, H., & Hwang, J. (2013). Multi-dimensions of the perceived benefits in a medical hotel and their roles in international travelers’ decision-making process. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 100–108.
Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K. P., Walsh, G., & Gremler, D. D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: What motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the internet? Journal of interactive marketing, 18(1), 38–52.
Hossain, M. A., Jahan, N., Fang, Y., Hoque, S., & Hossain, M. S. (2019). Nexus of electronic word-of-mouth to social networking sites: A sustainable chatter of new digital social media. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030759
Hossain, M. A., & Kim, M. (2018). Does multidimensional service quality generate sustainable use intention for facebook? Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072283
Hunt, K. M., & Ditton, R. B. (2001). Perceived benefits of recreational fishing to Hispanic-American and Anglo anglers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 6(3), 153–172.
Ishida, K., Slevitch, L., & Siamionava, K. (2016). The effects of traditional and electronic word-of-mouth on destination image: A case of vacation tourists visiting Branson, Missouri. Administrative Sciences, 6(4), 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci6040012
Iverson, T. J. (1997). Decision timing: A comparison of Korean and Japanese travelers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 16(2), 209–219.
Jalilvand, M. R., & Heidari, A. (2017). Comparing face-to-face and electronic word-of-mouth in destination image formation: The case of Iran. Information Technology and People, 30(4), 710–735. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-09-2016-0204
Jalilvand, M. R., Samiei, N., Dini, B., & Manzari, P. Y. (2012). Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1–2), 134–143.
John L. Crompton. (1979). An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of Travel Research, 1(Spring), 18–23.
Kanwel, S., Lingqiang, Z., Asif, M., Hwang, J., Hussain, A., & Jameel, A. (2019). The influence of destination image on tourist loyalty and intention to visit: Testing a multiple mediation approach. Sustainability, 11(22), 6401.
Kasanah, A. (2015). Penggunaan metode structural equation modeling untuk analisis faktor yang mempengaruhi kualitas pelayanan perpustakaan dengan program lisrel 8.80. Universitas Negeri Semarang.
Khan, M. J., Chelliah, S., & Haron, M. S. (2016). International patients’ travel decision making process- a con-ceptual framework. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 45(2), 134–145.
Kim, D. J., Ferrin, D. L., & Rao, H. R. (2008). A trust-based consumer decision-making model in electronic commerce: The role of trust, perceived risk, and their antecedents. Decision support systems, 44(2), 544–564.
Lau, I. Y. M., Chiu, C., & Lee, S. (2001). Communication and shared reality: Implications for the psychological foundations of culture. Social Cognition, 19(3: Special issue), 350–371.
Liang, L. J., Choi, H. C., Joppe, M., & Lee, W. (2019). Examining medical tourists’ intention to visit a tourist destination: Application of an extended medtour scale in a cosmetic tourism context. International Journal of Tourism Research, 21(6), 772–784.
Maharany, A. M., Albi, M., Abror, M. R. Al, Idzni, S. N., & Suhud, U. (2013). Investigasi peran expected satisfaction, social intention, dan brand image: Akankah mempengaruhi word-of-mouth pelanggan restoran jepang. Encephale, 53(1), 59–65.
Matzler, K., Strobl, A., Stokburger-Sauer, N., Bobovnicky, A., & Bauer, F. (2016). Brand personality and culture: The role of cultural differences on the impact of brand personality perceptions on tourists’ visit intentions. Tourism Management, 52, 507–520.
Mohammad Jamal, K., Chelliah, S., & Haron, M. S. (2016). International patients’ travel decision making process- a conceptual framework. Iranian journal of public health, 45(2), 134. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Conceptual-Framework-International-Patients-Travel-Decision-Making_fig1_301671462
Molinillo, S., Liébana-Cabanillas, F., Anaya-Sánchez, R., & Buhalis, D. (2018). DMO online platforms: Image and intention to visit. Tourism Management, 65, 116–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.09.021
Narayan, B., Rajendran, C., & Sai, L. P. (2008). Scales to measure and benchmark service quality in tourism industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal.
Novyanti, V. (2019). Bab I faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi visit intention penduduk kota Batam ke Korea Selatan. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Visit Intention Penduduk Kota Batam ke Korea Selatan, 1–8.
O’Leary, J. T., Morrison, A. M., & Alzua, A. (1998). Cultural and heritage tourism: Identifying niches for international travelers. Journal of tourism studies, 9(2), 2.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. (1988). Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. 1988, 64(1), 12–40.
Rastati, R. (2018). Korean Wave: Pariwisata, soft power, dan gerakan ekspansi budaya pop. In Pmb Lipi.
Ratchford, B. T., Talukdar, D., & Lee, M.-S. (2001). A model of consumer choice of the Internet as an information source. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 5(3), 7–21.
Roest, H., & Pieters, R. (1997). The nomological net of perceived service quality. International Journal of Service Industry Management.
Ruan, W.-Q., Li, Y.-Q., & Liu, C.-H. S. (2017). Measuring tourism risk impacts on destination image. Sustainability, 9(9), 1501.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of social issues, 50(4), 19–45.
Senecal, S., & Nantel, J. (2004). The influence of online product recommendations on consumers’ online choices. Journal of retailing, 80(2), 159–169.
Setiawan, P. Y., Troena, E. A., & Armanu, N. (2014). The effect of e-WOM on destination image, satisfaction and loyalty. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(1), 22–29.
Shen, S., Schüttemeyer, A., & Braun, B. (2009). Visitors’intention to visit world cultural heritage sites: An empirical study of Suzhou, China. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(7), 722–734.
Sotiriadis, M. D., & Van Zyl, C. (2013). Electronic word-of-mouth and online reviews in tourism services: The use of twitter by tourists. Electronic Commerce Research, 13(1), 103–124.
Tasci, A. D. A., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413–425. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287507299569
Tsaur, S.-H., Yen, C.-H., & Yan, Y.-T. (2016). Destination brand identity: Scale development and validation. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(12), 1310–1323.
Valek, N. S., & Williams, R. B. (2018). One place, two perspectives: Destination image for tourists and nationals in Abu Dhabi. Tourism management perspectives, 27, 152–161.
Whang, H., Yong, S., & Ko, E. (2016). Pop culture, destination images, and visit intentions: Theory and research on travel motivations of Chinese and Russian tourists. Journal of business research, 69(2), 631–641.
Wijaya, T., & Paramita, L. (2014). Pengaruh electronic word of mouth (ewom) terhadap keputusan pembelian kamera Dslr.
Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., & Lu, L. (2014). Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 40, 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.06.006
Zöllei, I., Karácsony, G., Baltás, B., & Nagy, S. (1989). Role of oxygen-derived free radicals in hemorrhagic shock-induced gastric lesions of rats. Acta physiologica Hungarica, 73(2–3), 357–362.
How to Cite
Noviyati Nabila, A., Asih, R. A., Putri Ramadhanti, S., Fakhrunnisa, F., & Suhud, U. (2021). FACTORS INFLUENCING INTENTION TO VISIT SOUTH KOREA DURING THE PANDEMIC. JELAJAH: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 3(1), 43 - 57. https://doi.org/10.33830/jelajah.v3i1.1834