INFLUENCE OF AWARENESS, PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE, AND PERCEPTION TOWARD OTHERS ON INTENTION TO IMPLEMENT RESPONSIBLE TOURISM MARKETING
This research aims at examining influence of awareness and perceived importance on intention to
implement responsible tourism marketing, moderated by perception towards other tourism
stakeholders. Respondents of the research were 157 tourism Small and Medium Enterprises
(SMEs) in Indonesia. Results show that while levels of awarenes and perceived importance were
high, perception towards others and intention to implement responsible tourism marketing were
lower. Further, awareness and perceived importance influenced positively intention to implement
the concept. The influence of awareness on intention to implement was moderated by perception
towards other stakeholders. This indicates that tourism industry is systemic where actions of
stakeholders are highly interdependent. Individual stakeholder’s decision to adopt of a certain
concept/strategy depends on others’ decision to also adopt it, despite the importance of such
actions perceived by him/her individually.
Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Behavior. New Jersey: Prenctice Hall.
Baron, Reuben M and Kenny, David A.. (1986). “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological
Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations”. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 51 (6), 1173-1182.
Celsi, R. and Olson, J.C. (1988). “The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes.” Journal of
Consumer Research, 15 (September), 210-224.
Coddington, Walter. (1993). Environmental Marketing: Positive Strategies for Reaching the Green Consumer. New
Cooper, D.S. and Schindler, P.S.. (2009). Business Research Methods. 11th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Republik Indonesia. (2009). Panduan Pemasaran Pariwisata yang
Bertanggungjawab (Responsible Tourism Marketing). Jakarta: Department of Culture and Tourism.
Fishbein, Martin. & Icek Azjen (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: an introduction to theory and
research. MA: Addison Wesley.
Frause, Bob and Colehour, Julie A.. (1994). The Environmental Marketing Imperative: Strategies for Transforming
Environment Commitment into A Competitive Advantage. Chicago: Probus Publishing Company.
Garret, H. E. (1960). Statistics in Psychology and Education. 5th Edition. New York: Longman.
Hassan, Salah S. (2000). “Determinants of Market Competitiveness in an Environmentally Sustainable Tourism
Industry”. Journal of Travel Research, 38 (February), 239-245.
Kotler, Philip dan Keller, Kevin Lane (2016). Marketing Management. 15th Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Kotler, Phillip dan Levy, Sidney J. (1969). “Broadening the Concept of Marketing”. Journal of Marketing, 33 (January),
Keller, Kevin Lane (1993). Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. 2nd
Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Li, Xiang (Robert) and Petrick, James F. (2008). “Tourism Marketing in an Era of Paradigm Shift.” Journal of Travel
Research, 48, 235-244.
Mill, Robert Christie and Morrison, Alastair M.. (2002). The Tourism System. 6th Edition. Sidney: Kendall Hunt
Morrison, Alastair M. (2010). Hospitality & Travel Marketing. 4th Edition. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Ottman, Jacquelyn. (1992). Green Marketing: Challenges & Opportunities for the New Marketing Age. Lincolnwood:
NTC Publishing Group.
Peirce, Mike and Madden, Katherine, (2009). Marketing and Sustainable Development, Cambridge: World Business
Council for Sustainable Development, HRH Prince of Wales Business & the Environment Programme, and
University of Cambridge Programme for Industry.
Putri, Ananda Widhia (October 19, 2017), “Menjadikan Pariwisata sebagai Core Business Indonesia”,
https://swa.co.id/wicf/news/menjadikan-pariwisata-sebagai-corebusiness-indonesia [Acessed: 2019,
R. George dan Frey N. (2010). “Creating Change in Responsible Tourism Management through Social Marketing.
South African Journal of Business Management, 41 (1), pp. 11-23.
Spenceley, Anna. (2010). Responsible Tourism: Critical Issues for Conservation and Development. London: Earthscan.
Swarbrooke, John. (1999). Sustainable Tourism Management. Cambridge: CABI Publishing.
World Tourism Organization. (2004). Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations, France:
Wray, Meredith, Dredge, Dianne, Cox, Carmen, Buultjens, Jeremy, Hollick, Mary, Lee, Diane, Pearlman, Michael, &
Lacroix, Carol. (2010). Sustainable Regional Tourism Destinations: Best Practice For Management,
Development and Marketing. Goldcoast: CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd.
Yaman, H. and Gurel, E. 2006. “Ethical Ideologies of Tourism Marketers”. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33 (No.
United Nations Environment Program and World Tourism Organization (2005), Making Tourism More Sustainable:
A Guide of Policy Makers. France: UNEP and WTO
[http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx0592xPA-TourismPolicyEN.pdf] [Acessed: 2019, July
“Laporan Akuntabilitas Kinerja Kementerian Pariwisata 2018” (2019, June 19), Available: www.kemenpar.go.id,
[Accessed: 2019, July 2].
“Expert Group Meeting for the Global Sustainable Development Report Tourism sustainability” (2013, October 23)
[Acessed 2019, July 2]
“Klasifikasi UKM” (2008, Agustus 29), Available: http://infoukm.wordpress.com/tag/kriteria-ukm/ [Acessed:
2018, February 17]
“One in Five Jobs of All New Jobs Created Globally in 2017 are attributable to Travel & Tourism (2018, March 220)
Available: http://www.wttc.org/ [Accessed: 2019, June 3]