The Journal of Research and Innovation in Open and Distance Learning (JRIODL) is a biannual international refereed journal that focuses on the multidisciplinary innovative study of open and distance learning. The JRIODL publishes manuscript that is based on empirical and interdisciplinary research and innovation in open and distance learning. The JRIODL is co-published by Universitas Terbuka and Indonesian Association of Distance Education Profession (Asosiasi Profesi Pendidikan Jarak Jauh Indonesia=APPJJI).