Flexible Working Arrangement, Stress, Worklife Balance And Motivation: Evidence From Postgraduate Students As Worker

Written by Anita Maharani, Salsabila Intan, Siti Afifah Mahlani, Christian Wahyu Berlian



The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of Flexible Working Arrangement (FWA) and Stress toward Work-Life Balance (WLB). The effect of those two variables, however, is strengthened by motivation. The goal is to provide a better understanding of the Work-Life Balance of Postgraduate students who fulfil multiple roles in their life, managing between academic, work, and family life. The survey used questionnaires for data collection in this research. A quantitative approach uses to analyze the data. The subjects of our sample were postgraduate students at a private university, with a total of 96 respondents. To analyze the data, PLS (Partial Least Square) analysis technique was used through the SmartPLS software. Also, to test the second and third hypotheses, a robustness test was performed to assess between items in the independent, dependent, and moderator variables. Findings. The results indicated that the Flexible Working Arrangement (FWA) is not proven to have a significant effect on the Work-Life Balance of postgraduate students. This research suggests the need to see the role of motivation, and the present of motivation in individual who fulfils multiple roles in life.


Flexible Working Arrangement, Stress, Work-Life Balance, Motivation, Multiple Roles


Ahrens, C. J. C., Ryff, C. D. (2006). “Multiple Roles and Well-Being: Sociodemographic and Psychological Moderators.” Sex Roles, 55:801–15. DOI 10.1007/s11199-006-9134-8
Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. C. (1986). Role quality, multiple role involvement, and psychological well-being in midlife women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 578-585.
Bataineh, Khaled. (2019). Impact of Work-Life Balance, Happiness at Work, on Employee Performance. International Business Research. 12. 99. 10.5539/ibr.v12n2p99.
Benshoff, J. M., & Lewis, H. A. (1992). Nontraditional College Students. Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. U.S. Department of Education. (ED 347 483).
Berry, G. R. & Hughes, H. (2019). Integrating Work-Life Balance with 24/7 Information and Communication Technologies: The Experience of Adult, American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 33, Issue 2, 91-105
Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2003). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, 3rd ed., Palgrave Publishers, Basingstoke
Breitenecker, R. J., & Shah, S. A. M. (2018). Relation of Work-Life Balance, Work-Family Conflict, and Family-Work Conflict with the Employee Performance-Moderating role of Job Satisfaction. South Asian Journal of Business Studies, 7(1), 129-146. Retrieved from: /10.1108/SAJBS-02-2017-0018
Bubb, S. & Earley, P. (2004) Managing Teacher Workload: Work-Life Balance and Well-Being. Paul Chapman Publishing.
Coetsee, L. D. (2002). Peak Performance and Productivity: A Practical Guide for the Creation of a Motivating Climate. 2nd Ed. Vanderbijlpark: Ons Drukkers
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1988). A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 24, 385-396.
Dishman, L. (2016). How The Master’s Degree Became The New Bachelor’s In The Hiring World. Retrieved from:
Doble, N. and Supriya, M.V. (2011), "Student life balance: myth or reality?", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 237-251. Retrieved from:
Doherty, L., Murphy, F. (2017). The Experience of Work-Life Balance for Irish Senior Managers. Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
Duxbury, L., Higgins, C. A., & Lee, C. (1994). Work-family conflict: A comparison by gender, family type, and perceived control. Journal of Family Issues, 15(3), 449- 466.
Emslie, C., & Hunt, K. (2009). “Live to Work or Work to Live?”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Organizational Psychology, 3, 54-65.
Frazer, G. H. & Kohn, J. P. (1986), "An Academic Stress Scale: Identification and Rated Importance of Academic Stressors", Psychological Reports, Vol. 59 No. 2, pp. 415-26.
Frone, M. R., Russell, M., Cooper. M. L. (1997), Relation of Work-Family Conflict to Health Outcomes: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study of Employed Parents, Journal of Occupational and Organisational Behavior, vol.13, no, 7, pp, 723-729.
Googins, B. K. (1991). Work/Family Conflicts: Private Lives-Public Responses. New York: Auburn Ho.
Graham, S., & Donaldson, J. F. (1999) "Adult Students' Academic and Intellectual Development in College." Adult Education Quarterly. Vol. 49(3), 147–161.
Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., Shaw, J. D. (2003) The Relation between Work-Family Balance and Quality of Life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63, 510-531.
Retrieved from:
Guthrie, V. M. J. (2012). Management Control of Work-Life Balance. A Narrative Study of An Australian Financial Institution. Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, 16(4), 258-280.
Hair, J. F. Jr, et al., (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis with Reading, 4rd Edition. Prentice-Hall International, New Jersey.
Hale, C. John III (2013) Differences in Life Satisfaction Among Graduate Students from Online and Traditional Universities. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4(9) ISSN 2229-5518
Helmle, J. R., Botero, I. C., & Seibold, D. R. (2014). Factors that influence perceptions of work-life balance in owners of copreneurial firms. Journal of Family Business Management, 4(2), 110-132.
Hooks & Higgs. (2000). The objective of this study is to test the effect of flex time and standard. Journal Economic UK
Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. John Wiley.
Kaur, J. (2013). Work life balance: Its correlation with satisfaction with life and Personality dimensions amongst college teachers. International. Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research.Vol.2, No. 8. 24-35
Ivancevich, John M. (2014) Human Resource Management, TMH; p. 30.
Lam, Y. C. J. (2015). Examining Student Experience of Blended Learning from the Perspective of the Community of Inquiry Framework. AAOU Journal, 10(2) pp. 81-99.
Lockwood, N.R. (2003). Work/Life Balance: Challenges and Solutions, SHRM Research Department. USA: Society for Human Resource Management.
Luaran et al., (2015). Blended Learning: Examining Student Satisfaction, Willingness, And Stress in Learning English. Retrieved from:
Mangkunegara, P. (2008). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Perusahaan. PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung
Martinez, E., Ordu, C., Della Sala, M. R., & McFarlane, A. (2013). Striving to obtain a school-work-life balance: The full-time doctoral student. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 8, 39-59. DOI:10.28945/1765
Mattis, M. C. (2005). Evaluations of Work Schedule Flexibility: Issues of Methodology, Measurement, effects of flexible work.
McFarland, J., Hussar, B., De Brey, C., Snyder, T., Wang, X., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Hinz, S. (2017). The Condition of Education 2017 [NCES 2017-144]. Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Misra, R., McKean, M. (2000), "College Students' Academic Stress and Its Relation To Their Anxiety, Time Management, and Leisure Satisfaction", American Journal of Health Studies, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 41-51.
Mullen, E. J., Kelloway, E. K. (2010). Safety Leadership: A Longitudinal Study of The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Safety Outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(2):253 – 272. DOI: 10.1348/096317908X325313
Moessenlechner, C., Obexer, R., Sixl-Daniell, K., Seeler, J., (2015). E-Learning Degree Programs: A Better Way to Balance Work and Education. The International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace 2015
Murphy, M. C., & Archer, J., (1996). Stressors on The College Campus: A comparison of 1985–1993. Journal of College Student Development, 37(1), 20–28
Nielsen, K., Randall, R., Yarker, J., & Brenner, S.O. (2008). “The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Followers’ Perceived Work Characteristics and Psychological Bell-Being: A Longitudinal Study”. Work & Stress, 22(1),16-32. Retrieved from:
Nordernmark (2004) Multiple Social Roles and Well-Being: A Longitudinal Test of the Role Stress Theory and the Role Expansion Theory. Acta Sociologica 2004. DOI, Retrieved from:
Nwagbara, U., Akanji, B.O. (2012). The Impact of Work-Life Balance on The Commitment and Motivation of Nigerian Women Employees. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol.2 No.3, p.38.
O'Connor, P. J., (1994). "The Needs of Adult University Students: A Case Study." College and University, 69(2), 84–86.
Roberts, K. (2007). Work-life Balance – The Sources of The Contemporary Problem and The Probable Outcomes: A Review and Interpretation of The Evidence, Employee Relations, Vol. 29 No. 4, pp.334-351.
Robbins, S. P. (2004). Teori Organisasi, Struktur, Desain, dan Aplikasi. (Alih Bahasa: Tim Indeks). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sauter A. & Hartung W. (2002). Abscisic Conjugates – Do They Play A Role as Long-Distance Stress Signal in The Xylem? Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 929–935.DOI: 10.1093/jexbot/51.346.929
Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2016). Research Methods for Business, 7th Edition. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Semlali, S., & Hassi, A., (2016). “Work-Life Balance: How Can We Help Women IT Professionals in Morocco?”. Journal of Global Responsibility, 7(2), 210-225. Retrieved from:
Shaffer, M.A., Reiche, B.S., Dimitrova, M., Lazarova, M., Chen, S., Westman, M., & Wurtz, O. (2016). “Work and Family Role Adjustment of Different Types of Global Professionals: Scale Development and Validation”. Journal of International Business studies, 47(2), 113-139. Retrieved from:
Sieber, S. (1974). Toward A Theory of Role Accumulation. American Sociological Review, 39, 567–578.
Singh, P & Khanna, P. (2011), Work-Life Balance a Tool for Increased Employee Productivity and Retention, Lachoo Management. Vol. 2 (2), 188-206
Tausig, M & Fenwick, R (2001). Unbinding Time: Alternate Work Schedules Work-Life Balance, Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), Human Sciences Press, 101-119.
Tharp, J. (1988). "Put the Cart First: Career Counseling for Adults Before Enrollment." In S. MacGowan (ed.), Recruiting in the 1980s: Enrollment Management and Adult Students. The Admissions Strategist, no. 11. New York: College Examination Board, 1988.
Thompson, R, J.; Payne, S, C; Taylor, A, B. (2014). Applicant Attraction to Flexible Work Arrangements: Separating the Influence of Flextime and Flexplace. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (88), 726-749
Uno, Hamzah B. (2010). Teori Motivasi dan Pengukurannya; Analisis Di Bidang Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Verbrugge, L. M. (1986). Role Burdens and Physical Health of Women and Men. Women and Health, II, 47-77.
Quick, J.C. Quick, J.D. Nelson, D.L., Hurrell, J.J. (1997). Preventative stress management in organizations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.