Critical Issues On Learning Process Amidst Covid-19 Perceived From Pedagogical Perspectives


  • Maximus Gorky Sembiring Universitas Terbuka (Indonesia)



Online learning, emergency remote teaching, learning experience, transactional distance theory, mobile pedagogy, integrative review


This study examined the implementation of online learning that took place during the Covid-19  pandemic. The goal was to unravel and straighten out various doubts and complaints in the community who think that the implementation of online learning caused problems rather than an alternative to the practical mode of learning. The study utilized a literature study (library research), that is integrative review. It was closely related to the semi-structured review aiming at assessing, criticizing, and synthesizing the literature on the related research topic in a way that enables new theoretical frameworks and perspectives to emerge. Additionally, the process follows four phases: design, conduct, analysis, and finally structuring and writing the review. The study showed a broad misunderstanding in society about what happened during working and studying from the home period. Many people suspected that what happened was online learning. However, it is not online learning but an emergency remote teaching instead. This implied that most online learning in operations did not meet the standardized requirements as it was established. Furthermore, not using the intelligent flexible learning model (the Fifth Generation of Online Learning Mode) resulted in significant complications at the operational level. Moreover, what factually happened did not meet the characteristics of online learning systems and services. Above all, most online learning institutions still ignore the use of appropriate pedagogics. This study also demonstrated the importance of utilizing a complete instructional design so that the learning experience as a condition for the learning outcomes effectively achieved was equally present in the learning process. Comprehensive planning that was arranged systematically and structured will allow dialogue for students in the implementation stage. The dialogue space must occur not only between students and teachers as well as students and students but also, more importantly, self-dialogue for each student. Some insights for future consideration were also formulated and recommended for better online learning implementation



Ahmed, V, & Opoku, A. (2021). Technology supported learning and pedagogy in times of crisis: the case of COVID‑19 pandemic. Education and Information Technologies.
Anderson, T, & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. IRRODL, 12 (3), 80-97.
Belawati, T. (2019). Pembelajaran Online. Tangerang Selatan: Universitas Terbuka.
Coman, C., Tiru, L. G., Mesesan-Schmitz, L., Stanciu, C., & Bularca, M. C. (2020). Online teaching and learning in higher education during the coronavirus pandemic: Students’ perspective. Sustainability, 12(10367). doi:10.3390/su122410367
Efriana, L. (2021). Problems of online learning during Covid-19 pandemic in EFL classroom and the solution. Journal of English Language Teaching and Literature, 2(1), 38-47.
Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61-72.
McTee, K. (2010). Thirty Years of Distance Education: Personal Reflections. IRRODL, 11(2), 100-109.
Milman, N. B. (2020). This is emergency remote teaching, not just online teaching. There’s a difference! teaching-not-just-online-teaching/2020/03
Moore, M. (1997). Theory of Transactional Distance. In Keegan. (Ed). Theoretical Principles of Distance Education. Routledge, 22-38. Distance/1997MooreTransDistance.pdf
Nartiningrum, N., & Nugroho, A. (2020). Online learning amidst global pandemic: EFL students’ challenges, suggestions, and needed materials. Academic Journal of English Language and Education, 4(2), 115-140.
Onyema, E. M., Eucharia, A. U., Gbenga, F. S., Roselyn, A. O., Daniel, O., & Kingsley, N. U. (2020). Pedagogical use of mobile technologies during coronavirus school closure. The Journal of Computer Science and its Applications, 27(2), December 2020, 97-110.
Oyedotun, T. D. (2020). Sudden change of pedagogy in education driven by COVID-19: Perspectives and evaluation from a developing country. Research in Globalization, 2 (2020) - 100029.
Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online university teaching during and after the Covid-19 crisis: Refocusing teacher presence and learning activity. Postdigital Science and Education, 2 (2020), 923–945.
Sembiring, M. G. (2020). Pendidikan Terbuka untuk Indonesia Emas. In Belawati, T (Ed).
Tangerang Selatan: Universitas Terbuka. http:s//
Sembiring, M. G. (2020). Academic excellence as a determinant of self-confidence among graduates of ODL programs. https://DOI 10.1108/AAOUJ-09-2020-0068
Sembiring, M. G. (2021a). Pedagogical Challenges in Online Learning: ‘Maxiagogy’ as Transformative Panacea Owing to the COVID-19 Outbreak. e-Proceedings, International Conference on Open Innovative Education, Open University of Hongkong, 5-7 July 2021.
Sembiring, M. G. (2021b). Pedagogik Transformatif Pemebalajaran Daring. Tangerang Selatan: Universitas Terbuka.
Taylor, J. (2001). Fifth-generation distance education. e-Journal of Instructional Science & Technology, 4(1), 1-14.
Snyder, H. (2019). Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines.
Journal of Business Research, 104 (2019), 333-339.
Whittle, C., Tiwari, S., Yan, S, & Williams, J. (2020). Emergency remote teaching environment: a conceptual framework for responsive online teaching in crises. Information and Learning Sciences, 121 (5/6), 311-319.
Williams, J. K. (2018). A Comprehensive Review of Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review. The Qualitative Report, 23(2), 345-349. 3715/2018.3374




How to Cite

Sembiring, M. G. (2022). Critical Issues On Learning Process Amidst Covid-19 Perceived From Pedagogical Perspectives. Jurnal Pendidikan Terbuka Dan Jarak Jauh, 23(1), 30–41.