IMPLEMENTASI WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH SEBAGAI PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN BERBAHASA AWAL ANAK USIA 5-6 TAHUN DI PAUD NON FORMAL

Nehru Meha, Adiyati Fathu Roshonah

Abstract


This study was conducted to implementa holistic approach to language (whole language approach) as the development of early language learning model of children aged 5-6 years in Non-Formal early childhood. As commonly known, ordinary people generally narrows aspects of language learning on only one small part of language development include reading and writing. On the other hand, the whole language approach has not been widely known specially applied nearly language learning in early childhood Non-Formal, but if implemented correctly and consistently, this approach is able to foster interest in literacy children naturally and fun. Whole language has been implemented nearly childhood language learning in developed countries that have a high interest in literacy. This study used action research methods by giving the action in each cycle from planning, action, observation, and reflection. This research was carried out in Non-Formal Childhood Education Mawar in South Tangerang January to July 2014. The subjects of this study consisted of 10 children aged 5-6 years were selected based on the observation of pre-cycle. The results of observations processed through data analysis techniques with descriptive statistics, namely to find the percentage and the average value of the initial improvements in language skills acquired through observation, interviews and discussions, as well as document review. The results showed that the implementation of the whole language approach that include simmertion, demonstration, expectation, responsibility, employment, approximation, feedback can improve early reading skills of young children. Based on pre-cycle observations initially beginning literacy percentage of 30.25% is still a child. In the first cycle after the action as much as7 times the meeting obtained by an increase in the percentage amounted to 85.50%. Based on these data showed an increase in the percentage of literacy of the observation of pre-cycle by 55.25%.The implications of this study are expected to approach whole language can be used as the development of early language learning model early childhood 5-6 years in Non-Formal early childhood, because it is natural and fun and developmentally age children.

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengimplementasikan pendekatan bahasa holistik (whole language approach) sebagai pengembangan model pembelajaran berbahasa awal anak usia 5-6 tahun di PAUD Non Formal. Sebagaimana lazim diketahui, masyarakat awam umumnya menyempitkan aspek pembelajaran berbahasa hanya pada salah satu bagian kecil perkembangan bahasa meliputi membaca dan menulis. Di sisi lain, pendekatan whole language belum banyak diketahui apalagi diterapkan di dalam pembelajaran berbahasa awal anak usia dini di PAUD Non Formal, padahal apabila diimplementasikan secara benar dan konsisten pendekatan ini mampu menumbuhkan minat literasi (keaksaraan) anak secara alamiah dan menyenangkan. Whole language telah diterapkan dalam pembelajaran berbahasa anak usia dini di negara-negara maju yang memiliki minat literasi tinggi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindakan (action research) dengan memberikan tindakan pada setiap siklus mulai dari perencanaan, tindakan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di PAUD Non Formal Mawar Tangerang Selatan pada bulan Januari sampai Juli 2014. Subyek penelitian ini terdiri dari 10 orang anak usia 5-6 tahun yang dipilih berdasar hasil observasi pra siklus. Hasil observasi diolah melalui tekhnik analisis data dengan statistik deskriptif, yaitu mencari persentase dan nilai rata-rata peningkatan kemampuan berbahasa awal yang diperoleh melalui observasi, interview dan diskusi, serta kajian dokumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa implementasi pendekatan whole language yang meliputi immertion, demonstration, expectation, responsibility, employment, approximation, and feedback dapat meningkatkan kemampuan membaca awal anak usia dini. Berdasarkan observasi pada pra siklus pada awalnya persentase kemampuan membaca permulaan anak masih sebesar 30,25%. Pada siklus I setelah dilakukan tindakan sebanyak 7 kali pertemuan diperoleh peningkatan persentase menjadi sebesar 85,50%. Berdasarkan data tersebut menunjukkan peningkatan persentase kemampuan membaca dari hasil observasi pra siklus sebesar 55,25%. Implikasi dari penelitian ini diharapkan pendekatan whole language dapat dijadikan sebagai pengembangan model pembelajaran berbahasa awal anak usia dini 5-6 tahun di PAUD Non Formal, karena sifatnya yang alamiah dan menyenangkan serta seusia dengan tahapan perkembangan anak.


Keywords


anak usia dini; early childhood; early language ability; kemampuan berbahasa awal; pendekatan whole language; whole language approach

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